Types of delivery for pregnant women

Types of delivery for pregnant women

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We are at a time of medical progress in which the maternal-fetal mortality rate is very low in developed countries. However, this data is not always in line with the experiences of women and their deliveries.

There are many types of childbirth, in reality there are as many as women and babies that come into the world. Each delivery is unique, special, with well-defined and differentiated characteristics, and the treatment of professionals should be adapted to them.

Although we could say that each birth is unique, it is true that there are, from a health point of view, different births which couples can face on the day of their child's birth. These are the main ones:

1. Normal or 'low risk' delivery. It is defined as a physiological process spontaneous onset by which the fetus, the placenta and fetal appendages come out of the woman. It occurs between weeks 37 and 42 completed. After giving birth, both mother and baby are in good condition. Based on this definition, between 70-80% of all pregnant women could be considered 'low risk'.

In this type of childbirth, a baby is born spontaneously vaginal, without any instrument, and the mother is not given intravenous oxytocin, nor are the membranes (bag) artificially ruptured.

2. Induced or stimulated labor. It is one in which the health professional artificially causes the onset of labor, or controls its evolution through the use of medications or maneuvers that accelerate labor (oxytocin, prostaglandins, artificial rupture of membranes. ..). This type of delivery has a high chance of ending up in a cesarean section or in an instrumental delivery.

3. Instrumental delivery: It is that labor that can be both induced, as well as having started spontaneously, which ends with the need during the second stage of the use by the gynecologist of an instrument to be able to extract the baby. The mother's perineum usually suffers a lot during these maneuvers and a very high percentage will have to undergo episiotomy.

Depending on the value, the doctor will choose forceps, conventional suction cups, spatulas or kiwi-type suction cups (it exerts less vacuum, it can be considered the lightest of all instruments).

4. Cesarean birth: is a surgical intervention in which an incision is made in the mother's abdomen and uterus to remove her child through it. It is carried out when the gynecologist determines that there may be a risk for the mother or the baby vaginal delivery. It can be performed urgently (if the well-being of the mother or baby is affected during labor) or on a scheduled basis (when the cause makes it unsafe to attempt vaginal delivery).

The reasons for cesarean section can be the following:

- Baby-related causes: abnormal heart rate (loss of fetal well-being), or a bad position of the baby (buttocks, transverse ...), problems in its development (hydrocephalus ...)

- Causes related to labor: Cord prolapse, placental abruption (manifested by very large bleeding), labor is prolonged or stopped despite active use of medications.

- Mother-related causes: previous uterine scars, serious illness that makes you unable to carry out labor well (heart disease, eclampsia ...), that you have active genital herpes infection ...

Recovery is slower and hospitalization time is usually longer since it is a surgical intervention, and the blood loss is greater than in a vaginal delivery. In addition, they tend to be mothers who are more likely to have problems with breastfeeding (delayed ascent, the first latch is usually delayed with what is offered to babies with bottles that interfere with a correct latch ...).

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